Jerusalem is a city of mountains and valleys which greatly contributed to its history. There are four mountains that lie in a straight line, going from east to west. Starting in the east, they are the Mount of Olives, the Temple Mount also known as Mount Moriah, Mount Zion, also called the Upper Hill.
Between these four mountains are three valleys. Between the Mount of Olives and the Temple Mount is the Kidron Valley. Between the Temple Mount and the Upper Hill is the Tyropean Valley. Between the Upper Hill and the New City is the Valley of Hennom.
To the north of the Mount of Olives is Mount Scopus. The Mount of Olives has two peaks. The higher one is to the north and is the site of several Christian churches. This peak is directly across from the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount. The lower peak of the Mount of Olive is to the south. On its western slope is the largest and most ancient Jewish cemetery.
West of the Mount of Olives is the Temple Mount. The southern slope is called the Ophel. West of the Temple Mount is the Upper Hill. The southern portion of the Upper Hill is called Mount Zion.
The Old City it roughly shaped like a square. It encompasses Mount Moriah, the Upper Hill, and the Tyropean Valley. The Old City is divided into four quarters. The north-eastern section is the Moslem Quarter. The north-western section is the Christian Quarter. The south-western section is the Armenian Quarter. The south-western section is the Jewish Quarter.
The Old City has a wall that goes around it. It was built in 1538 by the Ottoman (Turkish) Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent. The wall has seven gateways in it.
On the northern side from west to east is the New Gate (Bab Al-Jdid), the Damascus Gate (Bab Al-Amud), and Herod's Gate (Bab Al-Zahreh). On the eastern wall is the Lion's Gate (Bab El-Isbat), also called St. Stephen's Gate. On the Eastern Wall is also the Mercy Gate (Bab El-Rahmeh), actually part of the Temple Compound, but it was sealed up centuries ago. To the south are the Dung Gate (Bab El Magarbeh) and Zion Gate (Bab El Nabi Dahoud). On the western Old City wall is the Jaffa Gate (Bab El Khalil).